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Integrazione di cicli combinati con impianti WTE. Proposta di un polo impiantistico per la produzione di energia e lo smaltimento dei rifiuti solidi urbani


Autore: S. Zannier, R. Biancardi

Collana: FM - 2004 Sorrento - Third International Symposium - Energy and Environment

Il presente lavoro pone l’attenzione sulla possibile, nonché auspicabile, integrazione di due realtà impiantistiche già ampiamente affermate nel panorama energetico europeo:
Ø i Cicli Combinati (CC), dedicati alla produzione di energia elettrica da gas naturale;
Ø gli impianti Waste-to-Energy (WtE o Termovalorizzatori), dedicati al recupero energetico dalla combustione di Rifiuti Solidi Urbani (RSU) o di loro derivati (frazione secca o CDR).
L’integrazione dei due processi tiene in particolare considerazione la semplicità del sistema, che si traduce in ultima analisi nella maggiore affidabilità, flessibilità e disponibilità del polo impiantistico proposto.
Il tutto con un occhio di riguardo agli aspetti economico-finanziari.

The aim of the present work is to show the possible, as well as desirable, integration of two well-proven plant types in the international scenario of Energy & Environment:
Ø Combined Cycles, dedicated to power generation by using natural gas as fuel, 20÷200 MWe sized, equipped with double pressure boiler, global efficiency close to 50%;
Ø Waste-to-Energy plants (WtE), dedicated to energy recovery from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) or from Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), 5÷50 MWe sized, provided with high efficiency technology (such as water-cooled combustion grate + Integrated Boiler), global efficiency close to 25%.
The integration of the two processes takes into particular consideration the simplicity of the new system, that reflects on a higher reliability, flexibility and availability of the proposed facility; for instance, steam from separated boilers is collected into a common Rankine cycle, avoiding problems coming from the integration of the boilers. Both of the single plant-types are based on advanced and well-known technologies, widely referenced in several European facilities; they are provided with thermal cycles and flue gas cleaning systems that assure high-efficiency and emission levels lower (sometimes much lower) than law limits. Therefore, it is to believe that the mentioned synergy can create an integrated plant, economically and environmentally sustainable. Such a facility should be suitable to simultaneously solve two of the greatest problems in several European countries (especially in those countries where the nuclear energy production is forbidden): increase of energy demand and eco-sustainable waste management and disposal.

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